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Level 2: Logic 3: Five Arts

Time limit: 365 days
10 credits

£400 Enroll

Full course description

As a registered charity, we charge course fees to cover our running costs. However, we aim to make our education accessible to as many people as possible and are therefore able to offer a 65% fee waiver. To make use of this fee waiver, please use the code AMI65 when purchasing your courses.

Students in need of further financial assistance should contact the education team at to enquire about the possibility of further fee waivers. 


This course is the final of three courses on the subject of logic. It deals with the section on the five arts, focusing specifically demonstration (burhān). Links to other Muslim disciplines are also made to demonstrate how useful of a discipline it is for students in their studies going forward.


Lesson Breakdown

Lesson 1      Chapter five: Discussion on reasoning (al-bāb al-khāmis: mabāḥith al-istidlāl)

Syllogism (qiyās)

Lesson 2      Types of syllogisms (aqsām al-qiyās)

                    Connective syllogism (al-iqtirānī al-ḥamlī)  

Lesson 3      General principles for connective syllogism (al-qawāʿid al-ʿāmma li-l-iqtirānī)

                    Four forms of syllogism (al-ashkāl al-arbaʿ)

                    Form one (al-shakal al-awwal)

Lesson 4      Form two (al-shakal al-thānī)

                    Form three (al-shakal al-thālith)

                    Form four (al-shakal al-rābiʿ)

Lesson 5      Exemptive syllogism (al-qiyās al-istithnāʾī)

                    Rule of connective/conjunctive syllogism (ḥukm al-itiṣālī)

Lesson 6      Rule of disjunctive syllogism (ḥukm al-infiṣālī)

                    Conslusion regarding the related issues of syllogisms (khātima fī lawāḥiq al-                              qiyās)

Lesson 7      Compound syllogism (al-qiyās al-murakkab)

                    Syllogism by absurdity (qiyās al-khulf)

Lesson 8      Syllogism by equipollence (qiyas al-musāwāt)

                    Induction (al-istiqrāʾ)

                    Analogy (al-tamthīl)

Lesson 9      Chapter Six: Five arts (al-bāb al-sādis: al-ṣināʿāt al-khams)

                    Introduction (tamhīd)

Introduction to the division of syllogisms (al-muqadimma fī mabādī al-aqīsa)

Certainty bearing propositions of which there are six types (yaqīnīyāt wa aqsāmuhā al-sitta)

(1) Primitive propositions (al-awwaliyyāt)

(2) Observed propositions (al-mushāhadāt/al-maḥsūsāt)

Lesson 10    (3) Empirical propositions (al-tajrubiyāt/al-mujarrabāt)

                    (4) Widely-attested propositions (al-mutawātirāt)

                    (5) Intuitive propositions (al-ḥadsiyāt)

                    (6) Priori data propositions (al-fiṭriyyāt)

                    Conjectural propositions (al-maẓnūnāt)

Propositions that yield assent by way of the popular view (al-mashhūrāt)

Divisions of popular propositions (aqsām al-mashhūrāt)

                    (1) What must be accepted (al-wājibāt al-qabūl)

(2) What bring about refinement of character (al-taʾdīyāt al-ṣalāḥiyya)

Lesson 11    (3) Propositions that touch on ethical character traits (al-khulqiyāt)

                    (4) Propositions that express feelings or emotions (al-infiʿliyāt)

                    (5) Propositions based on societal norms (al-ʿādiyāt)

(6) Propositions people assent to based on complete or incomplete inductions (al-istiqrāʾiyāt)

                    Propositions that lead to delusion (al-wahmiyāt)

                    Admitted propositions (al-musallamāt)

                    Received opinions (al-maqbūlāt)

                    Things that have a likeness to something else (al-mushābihāt)

Lesson 12    Propositions that create images which produce emotions (al-mukhayalāt)

Division of syllogisms according to the content (aqsām al-aqīsa bi ḥasab al-mādda)

Lesson 13    Demonstration (ṣināʿat al-burhān)

                    Reality of demonstration (ḥaqīqat al-burhān)

                    That demonstration is a syllogism (al-burhān qiyas)

Demonstration of the fact and of the reasoned fact (al-burhān limmī wa innī)

                    Division of demonstration of the fact (aqsām burhān al-innī)

Lesson 13    Demonstration of the reasoned fact – absolutely and non-absolutely (al-burḥan al-limmī muṭlaq wa ghayr muṭlaq)

Prerequisite Conditions of demonstration (shurūṭ muqaddimāt al-burhān)



Please note that level two courses are only available to those who have completed all courses in level one. This is because the topics covered in level two require the historical and conceptual foundations which are built in level one.

Students are additionally required to have completed Logic 2: Syllogisms before proceeding to this course. 


Hours of Study

25 hours


Assessment Method

Written Exam (100%)


Course Instructor

Dr Wahid Amin

Dr Wahid Amin completed a BSc in Physics from Imperial College London and a PGCE from the Institute of Education, University College London. He then began his studies at the Al-Mahdi Institute and simultaneously completed a BA in Islamic Studies at the University of Birmingham, graduating from both in 2008. He went on to read for an MSt in the Study of Religions at the University of Oxford. His DPhil, also from Oxford, studied the metaphysics of necessary existence in the thought of the Persian polymath Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī (d. 672/1274). He joined AMI in 2015 as a Lecturer in Islamic Philosophy where he teaches courses on Islamic philosophy, theology, logic, and mysticism. He is also the Head of Publications at AMI Press and an Associate Lecturer in Islamic Studies at the University of Birmingham. As an intellectual historian of Islam, his primary research interests revolve around post-classical Islamic philosophy and theology. He also maintains an interest in contemporary Islamic philosophy, the intersection between Islamic philosophy and political theory, and modern Shīʿī legal theory.