Level 2: Logic 2: Syllogisms

Time limit: 365 days
10 credits

£400 Enroll

Full course description

As a registered charity, we charge course fees to cover our running costs. However, we aim to make our education accessible to as many people as possible and are therefore able to offer a 65% fee waiver. To make use of this fee waiver, please use the code AMI65 when purchasing your courses.

Students in need of further financial assistance should contact the education team at to enquire about the possibility of further fee waivers. 


This course is the second of three courses on the subject of logic. It will continue the previous section on universals and particulars and additionally cover the areas of predication (ḥaml), the four questions of scientific enquiry, definition (taʿrīf), division (qisma), propositions and their rules and types of opposition. Links to other Muslim disciplines are also made to demonstrate how useful of a discipline it is for students in their studies going forward.


Lesson Breakdown

Lesson 1      Divisions (taqsīmāt) into essential (dhātī), accidental (ʿaraḍī), specific difference (al-khāṣṣa), general accident (ʿaraḍ al-ʿāmm)

Lesson 2      Predication and its types (al-ḥaml wa anwāʿihi)

Lesson 3      Predication and its types (al-ḥaml wa anwāʿihi) (continued)

Division of accident (aqsām al-ʿaraḍī)

Logical universal (al-kullī al-manṭiqī), natural universal (al-kullī al-ṭabīʿī), rational universal (al-kullī al-ʿaqlī)

Lesson 4      The four questions of scientific enquiry

Lesson 5      Division of definition (aqsām al-taʿrīf)

Definition (al-ḥadd)description (al-rasm)incomplete definition (al-ḥadd al-nāqiṣ)complete description (al-rasm al-tām)incomplete description (al-rasm al-nāqiṣ)

Definition by example (al-taʿrīf bi-l-mithāl)

Definition by analogy (taʿrīf bi-l-tashbīh)

Lesson 6      Conditions of definition (shurūṭ al-taʿrīf)

Lesson 7      Division (al-qisma)

                     Principles of division (al-uṣūl al-qisma)

Types of divisions (anwāʿ al-qisma)

Lesson 8      Types of divisions (anwāʿ al-qisma) (continued)

Methods of division (asalīb al-qisma)

Lesson 9      Chapter 2: Assent

Section 1: Propositions (al-qaḍāyā)

Propositions and their rules (al-qaḍāyā wa aḥkāmuhā)

                     Divisions of propositions (aqsām al-qaḍiyya)

Division of proposition in respect to its subject (aqsām al-qaḍiyya bi-ʿitibār al-mawḍūʿ)

Lesson 10    Division of the conditional proposition into individual, indefinite, and quantified (taqsīm al-sharṭiyya ilā shakhṣiyya wa muhmala wa maḥṣūra)

Lesson 11    Divisions of the attributive proposition (taqsīmāt al-ḥamliyya)

Mental (dhihniyya), extra-mental (khārijiyya), and real (ḥaqīqiyya)

Lesson 12    Divisions of the attributive proposition (taqsīmāt al-ḥamliyya) (continued)

                    Privative and positive (al-maʿdūla wa-l-muḥaṣṣala)

Other divisions of the conditional proposition (taqsīmāt al-sharṭiyya al-ukrā)

Lesson 13    Divisions of the Separate Proposition (aqsām al-munfaṣila)

Lesson 14    Divisions of the Separate Proposition (aqsām al-munfaṣila) (continued)

Section 2: On the Rules of Propositions and or the Relation between them (fī aḥkām al-qaḍāyā aw al-nasb baynahā)

                    Contradiction (al-tanāquḍ)

Lesson 15    Al-ikhtilāf

                    Al-tadākhul, al-taḍād wa-l-dukhūl taḥt al-taḍād

Lesson 16    Conversion (al-ʿukūs)

                    Direct conversion (al-ʿaks al-mustawī)

Lesson 17    Contraposition (al-ʿaks al-naqīḍ)



Please note that level two courses are only available to those who have completed all courses in level one. This is because the topics covered in level two require the historical and conceptual foundations which are built in level one.

Students are additionally required to have completed Logic 1: Conceptual Discussions before proceeding to this course. 


Hours of Study

22 hours


Assessment Method

Written Exam (100%)


Course Instructor

Dr Wahid Amin

Dr Wahid Amin completed a BSc in Physics from Imperial College London and a PGCE from the Institute of Education, University College London. He then began his studies at the Al-Mahdi Institute and simultaneously completed a BA in Islamic Studies at the University of Birmingham, graduating from both in 2008. He went on to read for an MSt in the Study of Religions at the University of Oxford. His DPhil, also from Oxford, studied the metaphysics of necessary existence in the thought of the Persian polymath Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī (d. 672/1274). He joined AMI in 2015 as a Lecturer in Islamic Philosophy where he teaches courses on Islamic philosophy, theology, logic, and mysticism. He is also the Head of Publications at AMI Press and an Associate Lecturer in Islamic Studies at the University of Birmingham. As an intellectual historian of Islam, his primary research interests revolve around post-classical Islamic philosophy and theology. He also maintains an interest in contemporary Islamic philosophy, the intersection between Islamic philosophy and political theory, and modern Shīʿī legal theory.